Inflammation of the lungs begins immediately with chest pain when breathing, a strong cough with sputum, fever. The disease urgently requires hospitalization. The patient is shown bed rest, a special vitamin diet, and the main component of the therapeutic process is antibiotic treatment.
What is pneumonia?
Inflammation of the lungs is popularly called pneumonia. This is an infection of the lower respiratory tract with an incubation period of 2 to 10 days, in which the lung tissue is involved. There are several types of disease:
- Atypical. It is caused by chlamydia, legionella, mycoplasmas, that is, atypical microflora.
- Aspiration. It arises from the ingress of water, food or foreign objects into the respiratory tract.
- Hospital The disease develops while the patient is in the hospital.
- Community-acquired. It occurs as a complication after a viral infection. It is often the cause of death due to a strong decrease in immunity.
New generation antibiotics help to avoid the complication of pneumonia, in which lung abscess, pleural empyema, pneumothorax and other serious diseases can develop. The most serious consequence of pneumonia is respiratory failure. Such a pathology develops in patients with other chronic diseases or in elderly patients who do not receive adequate antibiotic treatment. Failure often causes death.
Antibiotics for pneumonia
Given the acute course of the disease, broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs are prescribed without waiting for laboratory tests. Doctors distinguish three degrees of severity of pneumonia. At the mildest stage, intoxication of the body occurs (mild), the patient's body temperature does not exceed 38 ° C, the heart beats in a normal rhythm. The patient maintains a clear consciousness, and an X-ray examination shows a small focus of inflammation, localized in the upper lobe of the lung.
In a severe stage, the body temperature immediately rises to 39 ° C, tachycardia (moderate), intoxication is observed, and x-rays show pronounced infiltration. The most severe degree of pneumonia (pleuropneumonia) is characterized by a body temperature of 40 ° C, the patient raves, suffers from shortness of breath, intoxication is pronounced. Prescribe antibiotics for pneumonia, given the following factors:
- stage and severity of the disease;
- drug toxicity;
- possible manifestation of allergies;
- spectrum of action of the antibiotic;
- the speed of penetration of the drug into the body;
- the rate of development of bacterial resistance to this drug.
The first antibacterial drugs that quickly penetrate into tissues and fluids, so they are used for congestive pneumonia. If staphylococci or streptococci are the causative agent of inflammation, then treatment with drugs of this type is effective. When pathology occurs for another reason, other antibiotics are prescribed. Penicillins are administered orally (tablets, suspensions) and through injections (injections). Penicillins include:
The group of drugs used in the treatment of pneumonia is becoming less common. Their instability to the action of microorganisms and the ability to accumulate in tissues is the reason. Tetracyclines have many contraindications: pregnancy, lactation, age up to 7 years, kidney disease. Famous representatives of this group of antibiotics:
Actively affect all bacteria of the cocci group, have excellent antibacterial properties to gram-negative and gram-positive flora, have an effect on microorganisms that are resistant to drugs of the penicillin group. Among the adverse reactions distinguish the manifestation of allergies. An intravenous or intramuscular route of administration of the drug is used. Antibiotics of this group include drugs:
This group of antibiotics for pneumonia is used to neutralize chlamydia, legionella, cocci. Macrolides are well absorbed, but food can slow down the process. Side effects and allergic manifestations are extremely rare. Contraindications include liver disease in patients. Representatives of this category of drugs:
Act on gram-negative aerobic microorganisms. They are used when pneumonia is caused by several types of bacteria, therefore, therapy is prescribed along with antibacterial or antiviral drugs. For example, the action of the antibiotic Amikacin with SARS will enhance the antibacterial Metronidazole. When taken together, you should observe the glomerular filtration rate in the kidneys (excretory ability). Representatives of the group are:
Medicines actively affect Escherichia coli, Legionella. To date, fluoroquinols occupy one of the leading places in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia. These are broad-spectrum drugs with the ability to penetrate deeply into tissues. The resistance of microorganisms to fluoroquinols rarely develops due to structural changes in DNA and the permeability of the bacterial wall. Known antibiotics of this group:
How to treat pneumonia with antibiotics
Which antibacterial drugs to take is decided only by the doctor. Self-treatment of pneumonia at home can be fatal. Antibiotic therapy is carried out for no more than 10 days, since many drugs are toxic. With bilateral pneumonia, treatment can be extended for a longer period. The specialist takes into account the general condition of the patient, his age and dosage form of the drug. A dosage of the antibiotic in the blood is needed so that it is effective for a given degree of the disease.
After 18 years, antibiotics are prescribed for pneumonia in a dosage calculated individually. An adult doctor can prescribe the use of both a single drug and antibacterial agents of several groups. Mostly drugs are used in ampoules, because some modern drugs, for example, Ceftriaxone, are not available in tablets. In addition, experts argue that antibiotics are more effective if they are pricked rather than drunk.
If after 3 days the therapeutic effect is absent, then the doctor should replace the medicine with another group of antibiotics. Often, changing drugs is also not recommended, so as not to develop the resistance of microorganisms to them. When the cause of inflammation is a virus, immunomodulators are additionally prescribed:
Find out more about treating pneumonia in adults.
Especially dangerous is childhood pneumonia, because it occurs latently after acute respiratory viral infections, and not as an independent disease. The child becomes lethargic, loses appetite, cough, wheezing, high fever appear. The basis of pediatric therapy is also antibiotics that are administered parenterally. Babies are prescribed natural and semi-synthetic penicillins or macrolides, in which the duration of treatment lasts no more than 5 days. Previously, pediatricians make a test for sensitivity to the antibiotic prescribed for the child.