Dry skin on the elbows not only looks unaesthetic, but also brings a person significant discomfort. This area is prone to roughness due to the lack of fatty tissue. In addition, in the area of the elbows, the sebaceous glands are not localized. As a result, the skin has to be constantly moisturized due to a lack of natural secretion.
Skin keratinization process
Keratinization is a natural process of cell death and keratinization in the epidermal layer of the skin. Such a cycle is envisioned by evolution to protect the internal environment of the body from external stimuli, for example, oxygen, which destroys organics. The keratinization process has several stages:
- New cells are born in the basal layer of the epidermis.
- They gradually age, after which they move to the upper layers.
- The nucleus and organelles of these cells gradually disappear, and keratin protein occupies the space limited by the membrane.
- After the basal layer, keratinocytes turn into a prickly. Here, granules are formed in the cells that secrete “cement” that holds them together.
- Then keratinocytes pass into the granular layer, where their membrane thickens. Under the action of a specific protein of filagrin, keratin condenses, loses water solubility.
- In the stratum corneum of the epidermis, the cells become flat. They are densely located to each other.
- After performing its functions, filagrin breaks down, which ensures the maintenance of the natural moisture of the epidermis.
In violation of this natural process, pathological keratinization develops. As a result, too many keratinized cells are formed, which leads to coarsening of the tissues and a change in their shade, which is observed on the elbows. Thickening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis is called keratosis.
Causes of the appearance of rough skin on the elbows
The most common cause of elbow dryness is overload. Those who often rely on them are more likely to suffer from the roughness of this area of their hands. This is especially true for those working at a computer. There are pathological reasons for rough elbows:
- hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, other pathologies of the endocrine system;
- metabolic disorders;
- aging of the skin;
- taking antibiotics;
- alcohol abuse, smoking;
- hypovitaminosis due to a lack of vitamins A, D, E;
- Iron-deficiency anemia;
- chronic renal failure;
- fungal infection;
- allergy to cosmetics;
- wearing tight clothing;
- Cesari's syndrome.
Compared with men, women initially have a thinner skin. This means that their skin is more sensitive to external and internal factors. Dryness on the elbows in women can cause:
- hormone problems;
- anemia (iron deficiency);
- abuse of chemicals, including gels and bath foams.
The functions of the epidermis are significantly reduced during menopause. Due to changes in the general level of hormones, hair, nails and skin are the first to suffer. The epidermis becomes less elastic, withers. Against this background, the woman has other symptoms:
- hot flashes;
- mood changes;
- decreased performance.
The hormonal background of a woman undergoes changes during pregnancy. this can also cause increased dryness of the skin. Changes are observed after childbirth during breastfeeding. Over time, the hormonal background is restored, and the condition of nails, hair and skin normalizes.
Rough elbows in men are more often associated with the action of external stimuli. Constant leaning while watching TV or eating increases the load on the skin. A special role here is played by the higher body weight of men in comparison with women. Due to the load, the skin on the elbows becomes rough, cracking, peeling.
Men rarely pay attention to the condition of their skin. They turn for help when the skin is already cracking, turning brown or even black, crusty. There are other reasons for rough elbows in men:
- The situation is aggravated by the fact that men are less likely to use caring means. Not getting proper hydration, the skin continues to dry.
- In addition, men are frequent visitors to saunas or baths, where chlorinated water is present, which causes severe dryness of the epidermis.
Rough elbows in babies are often associated with the fact that their delicate skin rubs against the diaper. Another reason is hard water or unsuitable bath products. It is less likely to use soap and other aggressive agents. During the heating season, the dry skin of a child may increase. In this case, moisten the air daily.
Dry elbows in a child may be a sign of atopic dermatitis. In this case, rough spots also appear inside and outside the knee bend, on the cheeks and forearms. If the skin is not just rough, but also dark, then this can indicate serious diseases:
- vitamin deficiency.