Infestation is a term that is translated from Latin as an invasion or attack. In Russian, this word has the same meaning, it is used mainly in epidemiology, parasitology. This type of lesion includes a whole set of different pathologies, which are characterized by the manifestation, penetration of different types of parasites into the human body. They provoke the development of diseases with different symptoms, which often disguise themselves as other diseases.
There are more than 200 species of worms that can penetrate the human or animal organism, but helminthic invasion is more often diagnosed. Helminths that fall into the object of invasion provoke tissue damage, general intoxication. Their vital activity leads to disruption of the work of various organs and systems of the human body. Helminths are kept inside due to hooks, suction cups or teeth, provoking lesions of the mucous membranes, bleeding.
Worms often parasitize during an invasion of the gastrointestinal tract, take part of the nutrients from food, which leads to a weakening of the immune defense system, human vitality, provoke anemia and vitamin deficiency. All this leads to frequent relapses of various pathologies. A very dangerous feature of invasion is the ability of the larvae to migrate. They can enter the bloodstream through the intestinal wall and reach other organs of the body. Localization places are the most diverse:
- a heart;
In the absence of adequate treatment, the vital activity of parasites can lead to critical destruction of the organ, causing severe consequences of invasion. To prevent complications, it is necessary to diagnose invasion in time, because it is easier to cure the disease in the early stages. It is important to determine the type of worms that hit the carrier in order to select the appropriate medications and formulate a course of therapy.
An invasive disease in most cases occurs when dirty food is consumed. If you ignore the rules of personal hygiene, the technology of cooking meat, fish, parasites enter the body. Worm eggs can remain viable in the earth, sand for a long time. If favorable conditions develop, they will easily penetrate the living organism. The following causes of invasion and the route of infection are distinguished:
- dirty water;
- insect bite;
- in contact with an infected animal;
- contact with the ground, sand, in which there are parasite eggs.
Isolation of the type begins with determining the pathway of invasion into the body. If parasites penetrated along with water, food, a person inhaled them, then this is a passive option. If there was an invasion through the cell and the helminths themselves entered, then this is an active route of infection. There is another criterion - autoinvasion, when the next generation of parasites appeared already inside the host. Diseases after infection are divided by the type of pathogen, the following options are distinguished:
- Protozoa - cause the simplest pathogens.
- Acaroses - develop after a tick bite that hit the human body from an animal.
- Helminthiasis - become a consequence of the invasion of worms.
- Entomoses - develop after an insect bite.
There is still a classification according to the location of parasites; the following options are distinguished:
- intestinal - ascariasis, strongyloidosis;
- tissue - toxocariasis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis;
- helminthiases of the hepatobiliary system - opisthorchiasis, fascioliasis;
- pulmonary - paragonimiasis, tominxosis.
The clinical picture of parasitic invasion is specific. Helminths live, as a rule, in the intestine, therefore all products of their vital activity enter the bloodstream, which causes significant damage to the health of the wearer. The following common characteristic signs of invasion are distinguished:
- Diarrhea, constipation. In severe pathology, when the multiplying parasites block the lumen of the small intestine, obstruction occurs. Other helminths change the microflora of the digestive tract so that the patient begins to suffer from diarrhea.
- Bloating. After invasion, inflammation of the intestinal mucosa may develop, which leads to discomfort in the abdomen. There is severity, bloating, which after taking medication does not go away.
- Allergy. This symptom indicates further reproduction of parasites. Helminths cause irritation of the intestinal mucosa, which causes the body to activate protective functions. Enhanced production of eosinophils begins - special cells that protect the body from the penetration of foreign organisms. Parasites respond to this with a specific substance, which provokes an allergic reaction.
- Anemia. With the development of worms, they can attach to the walls of the intestine, absorb substances that are necessary for the human body to function normally. With a major invasion, blood loss occurs, which becomes an impetus for anemia.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome. A parasite-infected person feels constant weakness. This symptom is similar to the manifestation of a cold pathological condition. It appears against the background of anemia, developing intoxication due to the remnants of the parasites, lack of nutrients.
- Weakened immunity. In response to the activity of the stimulus, there is a constant stimulation of immunity, which leads to the exhaustion of the body's defenses, its depletion. The carrier becomes more vulnerable to bacterial, viral infections.
In addition to the general manifestations of parasite infection, there are specific manifestations that indicate a specific type of worms. Based on these manifestations, analyzes, the doctor selects the appropriate medication. The following symptoms of diseases during invasion are distinguished:
The most common variant of helminthiasis, which is caused by pinworms.
Itching in the anus at night and in the evening, with the development of it becomes unbearable. In young children, the following symptoms appear: urinary incontinence, causeless crying, irritability, sleep problems (gnashing of teeth).
They cause roundworms.
Symptoms are similar to allergies, in young children they are accompanied by high fever (above 37 degrees), skin rashes, abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal upset.
Lamblia parasites cause.
The disease immediately begins with an acute phase: loose stools with traces of fat and a pungent odor. Characterized by belching, pain in the peritoneum. If a blastocyst invasion is detected, then the bowel movements become discolored, mucus and blood streaks appear in the feces.
They cause toxocaras.
Low-grade body temperature, swollen lymph nodes, skin rashes, itching. During the acute phase, there are signs of pneumonia and bronchitis, a person suffocates. Without treatment, toxocariasis leads to complications: damage to the nervous system, serious allergies, hepatitis, problems with the retina.
There are 3 proven methods for determining the presence of parasites in the body: a blood test, computer diagnostics, and bacterioscopic analysis of feces. The latter option is considered the easiest and most reliable way to detect worms. You can get the most accurate result when feeding the material 3 times with an interval of 1 day. Antibodies to parasites during invasion will be detected in the blood. Computer diagnostics can determine the presence of several types of helminths at once.
Therapeutic measures depend on the type of pathogen. A course of treatment is selected for each person individually, this is affected by the degree and severity of the invasion, the location of the worms. Drugs are selected so as to destroy the parasite, eliminate possible concomitant pathologies, and prevent a relapse of the disease. As a rule, the following medications are used for therapy:
- Fenasal. Effective against adult worms. The drug destroys part of the worm, leads to paralysis, death. The parasite is not removed from the digestive tract, it is digested on the spot. High efficiency is noted in the first stages of the disease, it is contraindicated in liver, heart pathologies.
- Albendazole Prescribe for multiple helminthic infestations. It is aimed at impaired metabolism, nutrition of the parasite in the body, does not allow it to lay eggs.
- Dekaris. Causes pinworm, roundworm, giardia, whipworm. Causes adverse reactions: diarrhea, vomiting, pain in the digestive tract. Do not use while carrying a child.
- Vermox. Effective in multiple infestations. The drug disrupts the reproduction process, the metabolism of worms. Not recommended for use during pregnancy.
- Pirantel. The action is aimed at both larvae and sexually mature individuals of lamblia, roundworms. If you violate the rules of admission, it can cause diarrhea, vomiting, nausea.
To reduce the severity of symptoms of the acute stage of invasion, which is often treated by patients, the specialist prescribes desensitizing agents: Suprastin, Claritin. The further treatment regimen depends on the location of the worms and associated pathologies. As a rule, the following groups of drugs are used:
- sorbents - Enterodesum, Polysorb, Maalox, Almagel, activated carbon;
- enzyme preparations, choleretic drugs - Pancreatin, Cholenzym, Festal, Hologon, Allohol;
- hepatoprotectors - Ursosan, Gepabene, Karsil, Essentiale;
- painkillers - Spazmalgon, Baralgin;
- antispasmodics - Papaverine, Drotaverin, No-shpa;
- broad-spectrum antibiotics - Levomycetin, Tetracycline, Gentamicin, Cephalexin, Ampicillin, Cefazolin;
- immunostimulants and vitamins.
A woman while carrying a child is very sensitive to all external influences. Immunity is significantly reduced, the expectant mother hardly resists parasites and viruses. Infestations pose a threat not only to the health of the woman, but also to the fetus. Worms deplete the host organism, helminths can penetrate through the tissues of the child. Many anthelmintic drugs have contraindications for use during pregnancy, so it is very important to consult a doctor at the first symptoms, because in the early stages the disease is easier to treat.
The doctor will draw up an optimal course of treatment, assessing the risks for the mother and baby. Self-medication is strictly prohibited in this case. All medicines that will be described below are allowed to be taken only from the II trimester. The following medications are prescribed during pregnancy:
- Biltricid - for the fight against tape parasites, flukes;
- Pyrantel - effective for roundworms, giardiasis;
- Piperazine - is prescribed for invasion by roundworms, pinworms.
When prescribing a course of therapy, anthelmintic drugs are prescribed to the child. To combat allergic symptoms after infection, antihistamines can be prescribed. Anthelmintic drugs can have a wide spectrum of action or fight certain types of parasites. On the recommendation of WHO, the following drugs are used for treating children:
- Mebendazole (Vormil, Vermox). prescribed for the diagnosis of nematode, the medicine helps with severe helminthic invasion. The tool kills eggs, larvae, adults, is allowed for use by children from 2 years.
- Piperazine. It has low toxicity, therefore it is allowed even to small children. If a powerful invasion has occurred, then piperazine will have a weak effect, it is screamed only with roundworms and pinworms, it does not affect larvae and eggs.
- Pyrantel (Helminthox, Nemocide). Assign a child from 6 months for the treatment of enterobiasis, ascariasis. Enough of one dose and the second after 2-3 weeks.
- Levamisole (Decaris). The minimum allowable age for admission is 3 years, helps in the fight against mixed helminthic infestation, pinworms.
Home recipes are becoming an additional direction in treatment along with medicines. They are often used in the treatment of young children and pregnant women, because they are non-toxic and safe for the body, but the effect of them is not so strong. To treat only folk remedies, the infection will be possible only with a small number of worms or in the very early stages. The following options are used to create drugs:
- Pumpkin seeds. You can eat them simply in a purified form for 2 tbsp. l every day, but you can cook a therapeutic mass. Peel and fry the seeds to make 1 cup of raw materials. Grind the seeds and mix with the same amount of honey and 1 tsp. Allow the product to brew for 10 days and take 1 tsp. every morning until the body is completely cleansed.
- Infusion of bitter wormwood. It is necessary to brew 1 tbsp. l grass in 0.5 liters of water. Pour the liquid into a thermos and let stand for 3 hours. Then strain the composition and add 1 tbsp. l honey. Consume 1 spoon each time before eating.
- Garlic. This is a simple remedy from traditional medicine, for which you need to peel and cut 10 cloves of the plant into large pieces. Eat them all at once, washed down with 1 cup of warm milk, no need to chew.
- Herbal harvest. You will need calamus root, centaury, buckthorn, wormwood. Mix these ingredients in equal proportions, type 2 tbsp. l mix and pour 0.5 liters of boiling water. The product should be infused overnight, then take 2 tablespoons in the morning and evening.
To prevent infection, a person should by all possible means prevent the penetration of the parasite into the body. For these purposes, it is worth adhering to the following simple recommendations for prevention:
- drink only purified, quality water;
- observe the rules of personal hygiene;
- carry out heat treatment of products (especially meat), wash them thoroughly;
- regularly process children's toys;
- carry out anthelmintic prophylaxis of pets;
- keep the room clean.